A few years ago, I applied to work at a place. They acknowledged my application and didn't select me to continue with the process. I e-mailed to ask why (in a polite, respectful "I'm trying to improve myself" way, not an "are you people insane or just idiotic?" way), and I got a response, and I sent a thank-you e-mail. Then a few months later they called me up to ask if I was still interested in the job. I went through the entire hiring process with them and ended up their Number Two choice. And now this week my wife saw online that they are hiring again.
One way of viewing this: I should totally apply, because if I was Number Two last time, there's a great chance I'll be Number One this time.
However, applying again would be like calling up an ex-girlfriend because you heard she'd broken up with her boyfriend, thus requiring her to say, "If I'd broken up with him because I wanted to be with YOU, I knew how to call you. But I didn't call you, did I?" I don't want to apply and get that acknowledgement-of-application-while-not-selecting-for-continuation e-mail. A reader might think, "You should have more confidence." But I know my life and I know what to expect: increasingly-embarrassing mortifications. There's a reason I came up with Fundamental Truth of Life #8; it's been my experience through many, many occasions.